اجتماعات یادگیری حرفه‌ای (PLC): راهبرد حیاتی بهبود خودکارآمدی معلمان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

2 دانشگاه علوم و فنون هوایی شهید ستاری

چکیده

امروزه اغلب مدارس در توسعه‌ی فرآیندی جهت پشتیبانی از رشد حرفه‌ای معلمان، شکست می‌خورند. اجتماعات یادگیری حرفه‌ای، چارچوب و فرآیندی را برای یادگیری مداوم و رشد حرفه‌ای معلمان، فراهم می‌آورد. پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی تأثیر اجتماعات یادگیری حرفه‌ای بر خودکارآمدی معلمان، انجام شده است. پژوهش به لحاظ هدف، کاربردی و از جهت شیوه‌ی گردآوری داده‌ها، جزو پژوهش‌های توصیفی از نوع همبستگی است. جامعه آماری پژوهش شامل؛ کلیه معلمان مدارس پسرانه دوره متوسطه شهرستان ساوه می‌باشد که از بین آنان 140 نفر بر اساس جدول مورگان برآورد و به روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی خوشه‌ای، انتخاب شدند. به منظور گردآوری داده از پرسشنامه‌های 52 سؤالی ارزیابی اجتماعات یادگیری حرفه‌ای (اولیور و همکاران، 2009) و نیز مقیاس 12 سؤالی حس خودکارآمدی معلمان (اسچانن - موران و وولفولـک، 2001) استفاده شده است. پایایی پرسشنامه‌ها با استفاده از آلفای کرونباخ، به ترتیب؛ 0.93 و 0.89 برآورد گردید. روایی ابزارها توسط متخصصین امر، مورد تأیید قرار گرفت. به منظور تحلیل داده‌ها از ضریب همبستگی اسپیرمن و نیز معادلات ساختاری با استفاده از نرم‌افزار اس. پی. اس. اس. و آموس استفاده شد. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد؛ اجتماعات یادگیری حرفه‌ای بر احساس خودکارآمدی معلمان در همه‌ی مقوله‌های آن، تأثیر گذار است همچنین از مؤلفه‌های اجتماعات یادگیری حرفه‌ای؛ «شرایط حمایتی _ روابط» و «شرایط حمایتی _ ساختارها» بیشترین تأثیر را بر خودکارآمدی معلمان به جای گذاشته اند.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


Allinder, R. M. (1994).The relationships between Efficacy and the instructional practices of special education teachers and consultants. Teacher Education and Special Education, 17, 86 - 95. Anderson, R. , Greene, M. & Loewen, P. (1988). Relationships among teachers’ and students’ thinking skills, sense of efficacy, and student achievement. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 34 (2), 148-165. Armor, D., Conry-Oseguera, P., Cox, M., King, N., McDonnell, L., Pascal, A., Pauly, E., & Zellman, G. (1976). Analysis of the school preferred reading program in selected Los. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman. Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.). Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents. New York: H.H. Freeman, 307–337. Barth, R. (2005). On common ground: The power of professional learning communities. Bloomington, Indiana: Solution Tree. Bray-Clark, N., & Bates, R. (2003). Self-efficacy beliefs and teacher effectiveness: Implications for professional development. The Professional Educator, 26 (1), 13-21. Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement. (2009). Professional learning communities. Retrieved from http://www.centerforcsri.org/plc/. Croft, A., Coggshall, J., Dolan, M., Powers, E., & Killion, W. (2010). Job-embedded professional development: What it is, who is responsible and how to get it done well. Retrieved from http://www.tqsource.org/publications/JEPD%20Issue%20Brief.pdf. Darling-Hammond, L. & Richardson, N. (2009). Teacher learning: What matters? Educational Leadership, 66(5), 46-53. DuFour, R. (2004). What is a Professional Learning Community? Educational Leadership, 61(8), 6-11. DuFour, R., & DuFour, R. (2010). Clarity Precedes Competence. Education Week, 30(7), 18. DuFour, R., DuFour, R., Eaker, R., & Many, T. (2006). Learning by doing: A handbook for professional learning communities at work. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree. DuFour, R., & Eaker, R. (1998). Professional learning communities at work: Best practices for enhancing student achievement. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree. Ghaith, G. & Yaghi, H. (1997). Relationships among experience, teacher efficacy, and attitudes toward the implementation of instructional innovation. Teaching & Teacher Education, 13, 451-458. Gibson, S. & Dembo, M. (1984). Teacher efficacy: A construct validation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 569-582. Goddard, R., Hoy, W., & Woolfolk-Hoy, A. (2000). Collective teacher efficacy: It‘s meaning, measure and impact on student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 37(2), 479-507. Greenwood, G. E. , Olejnik, S. F. & Parkay, F. W. (1990). Relationships between four teacher efficacy belief patterns and selected teacher characteristics. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 23, 102-106 Hord, S. (1997). Professional learning communities: Communities of continuous inquiry and improvement. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory publication. Hord, S. (2008). Evolution of the professional learning community. Journal of Staff Development, 29(3), 10-13. Hoy, A. W., & Davis, H. A. (2006). Teacher self-efficacy and its influence on the achievement of adolescents. In F. Pajares, & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (117–137). New York: H.H. Freeman. Kim, H.Y., & Kim, E.Y (2010). Korean early childhood educators’ multidimensional teacher self-efficacy and ECE center climate and depression severity in teachers as contributing factor. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, 1117–1123. Liaw, E. C. (2009). Teacher efficacy of pre-service teachers in Taiwan: The influence of classroom teaching and group discussions. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(1), 176-180. Midgley, C. Feldlaufer, H. & Eccles, J. (1989). Change in teacher efficacy and student self- and task-related beliefs in mathematics during the transition to junior high school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 247-258. Moore, W. & Esselman, M. (1992, April). Teacher efficacy, power, school climate andachievement: A desegregating district’s experience. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco. Mizell, H. (2010a). The Misuse of Professional Development. Education Week, 30(4), 22-23. Mizell, H. (2010b). Why professional development matters. Retrieved from http://www.learningforward.org/advancing/Why_PD_Matters_Web.pdf. National Association of Elementary School Principals. (2008). Leading learning Communities; Standards for what principals should know and be able to do. Alexandria, VA: National Association of Elementary School Principals. Multon, K., & Brown, S. (1991). Relations of self-efficacy beliefs to academic outcomes: A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38, 30-38. Muijs, R.D. & Rejnolds. (2001).Teachersbelifes and behaviors: What really matters.Journal of Classroom Interaction, 37, 3-15. Olivier, D., Antoine, S., Cormier, R., Lewis, V., Minckler, C., & Stadalis, M. (2009, March). Assessing schools as professional learning communities’ symposium. Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the Louisiana Education Research Association, Lafayette, Louisiana. Pajares, F. (2002a). Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficacy. Retrieved from www.emory.edu/EDUCATION/mfp/eff.html. Pajares, F. (2002b). Self-efficacy beliefs in academic contexts: An outline. Retrieved from http://des.emory.edu/mfp/efftalk.html. Pajares, F., & Schunk, D. (2001). Self-beliefs and school success: Self-Efficacy, self-concept and school achievement. Chapter in R. Riding & S. Rayner (Eds.), (2001). Perception. London: Abex Publishing. 239-266. Rosenholtz, S. (1989). Teacher’s workplace: The social organization of schools. New York, NY: Longman. Ross, J. A. (1992). Teacher efficacy and the effect of coaching on student achievement. Canadian Journal of Education, 17 (1), 51-65. Schunk, D. H., & Meece, J. L. (2006). Self-efficacy development in adolescence. In: F. Pajares, & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents. Greenwich, Connecticut: Information Age Publishing. 71-96. Stein, M. K. & Wang, M. C. (1988). Teacher development and school improvement: The process of teacher change. Teaching and Teacher Education, 4, 171-187. Southwest Education Development Laboratory (1997). Professional learning communities: What are they and why are they important? Retrieved from http://www.sedl.org/change/issues/issues61.html Tobin, T. j. (2006). Organizational learning and climate as predictors of self-efficacy. Social psychology of education. Tschannen-Moran, M., & Barr, M. (2009). Fostering student learning: The relationship of collective teacher efficacy and student achievement. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 3(3), 189-209. Tschannen-Moran, M., & Hoy, W. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 783-805. Wertheim, C. & Leyser, Y. (2002). Efficacy beliefs, background variables, and differentiated instruction of Israeli prospective teachers. The Journal of Educational Research, 96,54-63 Woolfolk A. (2007). Educational psychology: Instructors copy, Boston: Alley and Bacon. Woolfolk, A., & Hoy, W. (1990). Prospective teachers‘sense of efficacy and beliefs about control. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 81-91.