Comparing the type of modeling (self-modeling; skilled model) on self-efficacy and learning to throw darts

Document Type : Original Article


Shahed University


Observational learning is a process in which individuals acquire the information needed to learn a skill through visual perception. Numerous studies in this regard have shown that the use of modeling methods is an effective way to convey important information to learners. Also, according to the theory of self-efficacy, high self-efficacy can be considered as one of the factors affecting people's performance. The aim of this applied research, which was conducted in a quasi-experimental manner, was to investigate the effect of observational patterning (self-tuning, skilled patterning) on self-efficacy beliefs and learning dart-throwing motor skills. Thirty participants were randomly divided into three groups: self-tuning, skilled model and control as a simple statistical sample. Self-efficacy scale and dart throw test were performed as pre-test and post-test of the subjects. Participants then practiced for six sessions based on the group they were in. In the last session of the exercise, ten darts attempts were taken from each subject and the self-efficacy scale was measured. In order to test the research hypotheses, analysis of covariance and paired t-test were used to determine the differences between groups and within groups, respectively. No significant difference was observed between self-modeling and skilled model groups in self-efficacy and dart throwing test (p<0.05).In general, observation is a powerful learning tool that can be easily accessed by a person and also requires the least possible equipment.