A Comparative Study of Evolutionary Transformation of the Curriculum in Educational Sciences



  This research is a qualitative study of evolutionary course of curriculum planning in educational sciences worldwide. Both comparative and descriptive analysis were applied. The relate literature concerning this issue were obtained from the developed countries.   The results indicate five stages in this regard. The first was from 1850 to 1920, during which educational sciences simply prepared the students for the entrance exams of the universities and to help them pursue their studies and higher education. In the second period (from 1920 to 1957), the educational sciences wanted to engage the students in practical cources concerning their daily life. The third stage (from 1957 to 1980) in which the educational sciences educated people from childhood so that they could recognize their environment and become adapted to it. From 1980 to 2000 which was the fourth stage, the research process, problem solving, designing and development of thinking skills were introduced. Moreover, the concept of scientific literacy was suggested. In the last stage (from 2001 … on) the basic aim is to develop scientific- technologic literacy. Also, lifelong learning is reinforced during this stage.   The present paper studies these different stages as well as their essential elements including the objectives, contents, teaching method and evaluation techniques. The finding of such a study may shed lights over a wide range of subjects for instance, developing curriculum and changing it, or choosing more appropriate goals and objectives, contents, teaching methods and evaluation techniques by curriculum planners, textbook writers, teachers and other interested individuals.