The Study and Analysis of the Holly Defense Concepts´ Frequency in Elementary and Middle School Textbooks



This study is conducted to analyze the occurrence of the Holly Defense Concepts and terms in elementary and middle school textbooks. The analyzed textbooks are reading (Persian), religious teachings, social studies, and history. Five research questions were made and content analysis was used to analyse the answers. The subjects of the study were 24 textbooks published in 2004-2005 academic year. It should be noted that no sampling technique was used. The measurement instrument was a researcher-made content analysis checklist. Findings are the analyzed by descriptive statistics indexes. The most important findings indicate that:
In four analyzed textbooks, (reading, religious teachings, social studies and history) the holly defense concepts are repeated 903 times. The frequency for reading, religious teachings, social studies and history textbooks were 486,181,149 and 86 respectively. Thus, the results indicated that reading textbooks have the highest frequency among holly defense concepts, whereas the history textbooks have the lowest.
The holly defense words and Pharses among fourteen studied concepts were the most frequent, whereas social damage related were the least frequent ones. Creativity, innovation and self–sufficiency were not being addressed at all.
The hierarchy of attention to holly defence concepts in the studied textbooks was as follow: the second grade in middle school, fifth, fourth and third grades in elementary, first and second grades in middle school, and finally first and second grades of elementary.
Second grade of middle school and second grade of elementary have the most and the least of the holly defense concept occurrences respectively.